Monday, October 6, 2008

24 flavors

24 flavors or 24 mei is the name given to a variety of , drunk for . Its name refers to the fact that it is a mixture of up to 24 different herbs . The recipe is not fixed, and thus may vary according to the producer.

The tea is extremely in taste.

Typical ingredients

*Mulberry leaf
*Chrysanthemum flower
*Japanese Honeysuckle flower
*Bamboo leaf
*''Imperata cylindrica''
*''Agastache rugosa''
*''Perilla frutescens''
*Fermented soybean
*''Cleistocalyx operculatus'' flower
*''Microcos paniculata'' leaf
*'' rotunda''

Four stages

The Four Stages or Four Levels are from the book ''Discussion of Warm Diseases'' by Ye Tian Shi, written in the years 1667-1746.

The stages are in order from surface to deep internal and from "light" sickness to death:

*Wei level treated by releasing the exterior





*Qi level treated by dispelling heat and promoting body fluids

Lung heat

Stomach heat

Intestines dry-heat

Gall-bladder heat

Stomach and Spleen damp heat

*Ying level treated by cooling fire and tonifing the yin

Heat in Nutritive qi portion

Heat in Pericardium

*Blood level treated by tonifing the yin and qi and stopping bleeding.
Heat Victorious moves blood

Heat victorious stirs wind

Empty wind agitates in the interior

Collapse of yin

Collapse of yang

Separation of yin and yang

Fire cupping

Fire cupping is a method of applying acupressure by creating a vacuum next to the patient's skin, used in traditional Chinese medicine . It involves placing glass, plastic, or bamboo cups on the skin. The therapy is used to relieve what is called "stagnation" in TCM terms, and is used in the treatment of diseases such as the common cold, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Cupping is also used to treat back, neck, shoulder, and other musculoskeletal pain. Its advocates claim it has other applications as well. This technique, in varying forms, has also been found in the folk medicine of Vietnam, the Balkans, modern Greece, Cyprus, Mexico, and Poland. In Poland, it is referred to as ''banki'' and in Iran it is called 'bod-kesh', meaning 'pull with air'. Cupping was also commonly used as a folk remedy, with the Yiddish name ?????? . Cupping is also sometimes practiced in BDSM for stimulation or pain.


Cupping in Europe and the Middle East grew from , a belief dating to the ancient Greeks which supposed temperament and health were related to the balance or imbalance of four "humors" in the body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. This system was adopted widely by ancient European and Middle-East cultures. Applying hot cups to the body aided bloodletting, removing an excess of blood and purportedly returning the body to health. Humoral medicine encountered a brief revival in European medicine in the 18th and 19th centuries, and cupping was widely used in this practice.

In the late 20th century, cupping has gained a second wind as a for a variety of ailments.


A vacuum is created by air heated by fire in a glass cup placed flush against the patient's skin. As the air cools in the cup, a vacuum forms that pulls up on the skin, stimulating the acupressure effect.

The cups are roughly bell shaped with a capacity of about 4 fluid ounces. 8 to 12 cups are applied to the subject's back in two parallel 'vertical' columns, midway between the spine and each edge of the body; cups within each column are placed four inches apart measured from the center of the cup.

There are several ways of heating the air in the cup with fire:

#One can swab rubbing alcohol into the bottom of a cup, then light it and place the cup immediately against the skin. The seal thus created extinguishes the fire by cutting off its oxygen supply, preventing the person from being burned. The smaller the amount of alcohol, and the quicker the flame is extinguished by application of the cup, the better, so long as there is no risk of the cups falling off due to lack of a proper seal. Some experienced cuppers prefer the use of kerosene over alcohol, claiming it provides better ignition and thus greater suction.
#One can hold the cup inverted over a flame , heating the air within it, then place the cup against the skin. Care must be taken not to heat the glass itself. Even so, the person to whom the cup is applied will feel distinctly more heat than in the previous method.
#One can ignite a flame with a small alcohol-soaked cotton wad resting on a small pad of leather or other insulating material that rests directly on the patient's skin, then place the cup immediately over the flame, putting out the fire. The quickness with which the flame is extinguished depends on the size and shape of the cup.
#One can place the cup on the skin and gently heat the bottom of the cup with a flame heating the air inside, whilst leaving a small gap to allow air to escape. When the air is heated sufficiently, the gap is closed and the air is allowed to cool.

Methods 1 and 2 heat the glass to some extent and have a risk of burning the patient if not carefully executed. Method 3 risks the cotton falling off the insulating pad onto the patient's skin, and leaves the pad and cotton wadding inside the adhering cup which could be considered cumbersome.

Baby oil massaged onto the skin prior to treatment causes a better seal to form, making it possible to use this therapy with less heating of the cup. It is often possible to slide the adhered cup around on the skin, preserving the suction seal as it glides. Care must be taken not to move the cup over protruding , skin tags, scabs, etc.

The longer a cup is left on, the more of a circular mark is created. The skin pores are more open, and the patient may experience a sensation similar to sunburn. An application of about 20 minutes is average, for the back; however this varies with the individual. In no case should the cups be left in place if the subject reports noticeable discomfort.

According to the American Cancer Society, "vailable scientific evidence does not support cupping as a cure for cancer or any other disease". It can leave temporary unsightly marks on the skin and there is also a small risk of burns. Persons who claim this therapy to be beneficial report that it produces feeling of relaxation and invigoration. It is possible that whatever relief is obtained from this procedure derives from the same principles that are employed in shiatsu massage, where instead of the outward sucking of the cups, strong inward pressure is directed at the muscles of the ribcage and abdomen.

Wet cupping

In this alternative form of bloodletting, also called blood cupping, a small scratch or incision is made with a lancet prior to the cupping, and the pressure difference extracts blood from the skin. uses this technique - called in ''hijamah'' or ''hijama'' - with a number of hadith supporting its recommendation and use by Muhammad.

The ''hijama'' method cautions against over cupping, cupping in the lying down position and sleeping or resting following any cupping procedure, claiming that the one real danger of cupping is the potential risk of blood clotting following a procedure. Patients should take a brisk thirty minute walk following any cupping treatment. When properly performed, using tiny incisions and not leaving the cups on longer than necessary, cupping leaves no marks or scarring.

While the history of wet cupping may date back thousands of years, the first documented uses are found in the teachings of Muhammad. According to Imams , and , Muhammad approved of the Hijama treatment. This treatment was usually recommended for headache or leg aches. Muhammad himself underwent Hijama for his lumbar pains.


Ephedra refers to the plant ''Ephedra sinica''. ''E. sinica'', known in Chinese as ma huang , has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5,000 years for the treatment of asthma and hay fever, as well as for the common cold. Several additional species belonging to the genus '''' have traditionally been used for a variety of medicinal purposes, and are a possible candidate for the Soma plant of Indo-Iranian religion. and Mormon pioneers drank a tea brewed from an ''Ephedra,'' called Mormon Tea, but North American ephedras lack the alkaloids found in species such as ''E. sinica''.

In recent years, the safety of ephedra-containing dietary supplements has been questioned by the United States Food and Drug Administration , the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and the medical community as a result of a high rate of serious side effects and ephedra-related deaths. In response to accumulating evidence of adverse effects and deaths related to ephedra, the FDA banned the sale of ephedra-containing supplements on April 12 2004. A suit by an ephedra manufacturer was upheld by a judge in Utah on April 14 2005. The FDA appealed this ruling, and on August 17 2006 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit upheld the FDA's ban of ephedra. The sale of ephedra-containing dietary supplements remains illegal in the United States due to evidence of adverse ephedra-related effects.

Ephedra biochemistry

The alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are the active constituents of the plant. Pseudoephedrine is used in decongestants. Derivatives of ephedrine are used to treat , but alternatives with reduced cardiovascular risk have replaced it for treating asthma. Ephedrine is also considered a performance-enhancing drug and is prohibited in most competitive sports. Some species in the ''Ephedra'' genus have no alkaloid content and are therefore essentially inert; however, the most commonly used species, ''E. sinica'', has a total alkaloid content of 1–3% by dry weight. Ephedrine constitutes 40–90% of the alkaloid content, with the remainder consisting of pseudoephedrine and the demethylated forms of each compound.

Effects and uses

Ephedra is both a stimulant and a thermogenic; its biological effects are due to its ephedrine and pseudoephedrine content. These compounds stimulate the brain, increase heart rate, constrict blood vessels , and expand bronchial tubes . Their thermogenic properties cause an increase in metabolism, evidenced by an increase in body heat.

In traditional Chinese herbology, ''E. sinica'' is included in many herbal formulas used to treat cold and flu such as 麻黃湯 ''ma huang tang'' or 麻杏石甘湯 ''ma xing shi gan tang'' . Ephedra is used therapeutically as a diaphoretic to help expel exterior pathogens and regulate the proper functioning of the lungs.

Ephedra is widely used by athletes, despite a lack of evidence that it enhances athletic performance. Ephedra may also be used as a precursor in the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine.

Ephedra has also been used for weight loss, sometimes in combination with aspirin and caffeine. Some studies have shown that ephedra, when taken in a regulated and supervised environment, is effective for marginal short-term weight loss , although it is unclear whether such weight loss is maintained. However, several reports have documented the large number of adverse events attributable to unregulated ephedra supplements.

Side effects of ephedra may include severe skin reactions, irritability, nervousness, dizziness, trembling, headache, insomnia, profuse perspiration, dehydration, itchy scalp and skin, vomiting, hyperthermia, , seizures, , stroke, or death.

Purity and dosage

There are no formal requirements for standardization or quality control of dietary supplements in the United States, and the dosage of effective ingredients in supplements may vary widely from brand to brand or batch to batch. Studies of ephedra supplements have found significant discrepancies between the labeled dose and the actual amount of ephedra in the product. Significant variation in ephedrine alkaloid levels, by as much as 10-fold, was seen even from lot to lot within the same brand.

Safety and regulatory actions in the United States

Escalating concerns regarding the safety of ephedra supplements led the FDA to ban the sale of ephedra-containing supplements in the United States in 2004. This ban was challenged by supplement manufacturers and initially overturned, but ultimately upheld. However, the FDA ban only applies to ephedra-based dietary supplements that contain ephedrine alkaloids.

Initial concerns and supplement industry response

In 1997, in response to mounting concern over serious side effects of ephedra, the FDA proposed a ban on products containing 8 mg or more of ephedrine alkaloids and stricter labeling of low-dose ephedra supplements. The FDA also proposed that ephedra labels be required to disclose the health risks of ephedra, such as , stroke, or death.

In response, the supplement industry created a public relations group, the Ephedra Education Council, to oppose the changes, and commissioned a scientific review by a private consulting firm, which reported that ephedra was safe. The Ephedra Education Council also attempted to block publication of a study confirming wide discrepancies between the labeled potency of supplements and the actual amount of ephedra in the product. Senators Orrin Hatch and Tom Harkin, authors of the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act, questioned the scientific basis for the FDA's proposed labeling changes and suggested that the number of problems reported were insufficient to warrant regulatory action. At the time, Hatch's son was working for a firm hired to Congress and the FDA on behalf of ephedra manufacturers.

In addition to the activities of the Ephedra Education Council, Metabolife spent more than $4 million between 1998 and 2000 lobbying against state regulation of ephedra in Texas. ''Business Week'' reported that efforts to regulate ephedra and other potentially harmful supplements had been "beaten down by deep-pocketed industry lobbying."

Ultimately, in 2000, the FDA withdrew the proposed labeling changes and restrictions.

Additional evidence

A review of ephedra-related adverse reactions, published in the ''New England Journal of Medicine'' in 2000, found a number of cases of sudden cardiac death or severe disability resulting from ephedra use, many of which occurred in young adults using ephedra in the labeled dosages.

Death of Steve Bechler

Steve Bechler, a for the Baltimore Orioles, died of complications from heatstroke following a spring training workout on February 17 2003. The medical examiner found that ephedra toxicity played a "significant role" in Bechler's sudden death. Following Bechler's death, the FDA re-opened its efforts to regulate ephedra use. According to Bruce Silverglade, legal director for the Center for Science in the Public Interest, "All of a sudden Congress dropped objections to an ephedra ban and started demanding the FDA act."

Ephedra banned

In response to renewed calls for the regulation of ephedra, the FDA commissioned a large meta-analysis of ephedra's safety and efficacy by the RAND Corporation. This study found that while ephedra promoted modest short-term weight loss, there was no evidence that it was effective for long-term weight loss or performance enhancement. The use of ephedra in this study was associated with significant gastrointestinal, psychiatric, and side effects. Almost simultaneously, a study in ''Annals of Internal Medicine'' found that ephedra was 100 to 700 times more likely to cause a significant adverse reaction than other commonly used supplements such as kava or Ginkgo biloba. Subsequently, on April 12 2004, the FDA issued a final rule banning the sale of ephedra-containing dietary supplements. Tommy Thompson, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, stated that "...These products pose unacceptable health risks, and any consumers who are still using them should stop immediately."

The ruling was appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit in Denver, Colorado. On August 17 2006, the Appeals Court upheld the FDA's ban of ephedra, finding that the 133,000-page administrative record compiled by the FDA supported the agency's finding that ephedra posed an unreasonable risk to consumers. The U.S. National Football League banned players from using ephedra as a dietary supplement in 2001 after the death of Minnesota Vikings offensive tackle Korey Stringer; ephedra was found in Stringer's locker and lawyers for the team contend that it contributed to his death. The substance is also banned by the National Basketball Association.

Prominent cases of ephedra use

In the 1994 , the footballer tested positive for ephedrine. The Japanese motorcycle racer Noriyuki Haga tested positive for it in 2000, being disqualified from two races and banned from two more as a result. NFL Todd Sauerbrun of the Denver Broncos was suspended for the first month of the 2006 season after testing positive for ephedra.

Emerson College of Herbology

Emerson College of Herbology was one of the first schools of Herbal Medicine founded in North America. This college taught the science of Herbology. It was based in Montreal, Canada.

The history of Emerson College of Herbology can be traced back to 1888. In this year Dr. Max Thuna immigrated from his native Austria to New York City. Dr. Thuna was a Master Herbalist and opened his first herbal store in New York City soon after his arrival. Dr. Thuna eventually relocated to Canada and went on to open twenty-five herbal shops across the country.

Following in his father's footsteps, Dr. Jack Thuna became a Master Herbalist and a practicing Homeopathic . He founded Emerson College of Herbology in the mid 1950s in order to spread his families understanding of the natural healing elements of herbs to others of like mind. The course of study was initially offered primarily via a correspondence format when it operated from Dr. Thuna's, Pointe Claire, Quebec clinic. Dr. Thuna eventually moved from this clinic and rented the ground floor of a large multi story building in Montreal; located at 11 Street. and Catherine Street East. This location is in downtown Montreal. From there he ran a large wholesale herbal sales operation and established the new home of Emerson College of Herbology.

With the additional room afforded by the new location, Dr. Thuna was able to offer a more diverse program of study in Herbology. By 1977 Dr. Thuna and Professor C.C. Bell were able to provide extensive classroom instruction. In addition, they instituted the requirement of writing of a thesis for students who wished to explore the science of Herbology to greater depths, and graduate from the college. Because the wholesale herb business was housed at this location as well, the students were able to examine and work with numerous specimens of exotic medicinal plants, gaining deep insight into the science of Herbology.

During this period, upon graduation, the college began offering a detailed transcript of courses taken and grades received. This was because Dr. Thuna felt that some of the courses may be accepted in transfer at traditional schools of medicine.

In 1978 Dr. Robert Mohr Wyndham, an alumnus of the college, began serving as a consultant chemist to the college's advanced program. He served in this position until late in 1980. At this time Dr. Thuna, who was then eighty-four years old, notified him that he would no longer be able to offer the advance program of Herbal education due to his failing health.

Emerson College of Herbology closed its doors in 1989. The family has, however, continued forward and has a flourishing Canadian based company offering high quality herbs.

During its existence Emerson College of Herbology was regarded as one of the most respected schools of Herbology in the world. The college offered Bachelor of Science and Master of Herbology, M.H. degrees to its student body. The M.H. program usually lasted 2-3 years. Many of the graduates of this college make up the who's who in the world of modern Homeopathic Medicine.

Notable Alumni

* Daniel Clay
* Rita Elkins
* David Elliott
* Jacqueline Fairbrass
* Paulette E. Fitzpatrick
* Thom Hartmann
* Carl Edwin Lindgren
* Diane McLaren
* Cathy McNease
* Thelma Mullen
* Diane H. Polasky
* Lainy Reicher
* Scott Shaw
* Louise Tenney
* Barry Whittaker
* Robert Mohr Wyndham

Di Long (extract)

Di Long or Dilong extract is a medicinal preparation based on abdominal extracts from the earthworm species ''Lumbricus rubellus'' used in traditional Chinese medicine for a wide variety of disorders, from convulsions and fevers to rheumatoid arthritis and blood stasis syndromess.


Di Long comes in two variants, Guang Di Long native to Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and collected from spring to autumn, and Tu Di Long collected during the summer in many regions of China. The abdomen of an earthworm of the ''L. rubellus'' species is cut open immediately after capture, whereupon viscera and extraneous matter are removed. The abdomen is washed clean, and dried in the sun or indoors at a low temperatures.

It is also used in the treatment of blepharoptosis, or drooping of the upper eye lid, along with other Phlegm Herbs .

According to TCM, Di Long is associated with the Bladder, Liver, Lung and Spleen meridians, and has Salty and Cold properties. It is thought to work by draining Liver Heat and by clearing Lung Heat, and also by clearing Heat in the collateral channels. Its "channel-opening" properties are thought to derive from its habits of burrowing through the earth, constantly searching out new spaces to slither.

Recommended dosage is 4.5 to 12 grams per day as an oral preparation.

Desi Sangye Gyatso

Desi Sangye Gyatso was the regent of the Fifth Dalai Lama who founded the School of Medicine and Astrology on Chags-po-ri Hill in 1694 and wrote the ''Blue Beryl'' treatise. The name is sometimes written Sangye Gyamtso.

By some accounts, Sangye Gyatso is believed to be the son of the Fifth Dalai Lama. He ruled as regent, hiding the death of the Dalai Lama, while the infant Sixth Dalai Lama was growing up, for 16 years. During this period, he oversaw the completion of the Potala palace, and also warded off Chinese politicking. Eventually, the discovery of this deception was not taken kindly by the Chinese emperor Kangxi.

Iron Mountain

The medical college at Chags-po-ri was designed for monastic scholars who would, after learning esoteric arts of medicine and tantrism, mostly remain in the monastery, serving the public as would other monk scholars and lamas. In 1916, Khenrab Norbu, physician to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama, sponsored the construction of a second secular college of Tibetan medicine and Astrology, the Mentsikhang. Mentsikhang was designed as a college for 'laypersons' who would, after receiving training, return to their rural areas for work as doctors and educators.

Six herbs

Six medicinal substances were in common use in Tibet when they appeared in the ''Blue Beryl'' Treatise:
* Arabic frankincense (Burseraceae} ;
* Mongolian garlic ;
* Chinese quince ;
* Indian embelic myrobalan ;
* Tibetan ginger ;
* South Chinese Kaempferia galanga ;

Danqi Jiaonang

Danqi Jiaonang is a traditional Chinese medicine preparation containing a mixture of 14 herbal and plant extracts. It was initially developed by the First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin in China.

Danqi Jiaonang is approved and marketed in Singapore under the brand name NeuroAid for "functional and neurological deficits from cerebral infarction" . NeuroAid was registered as a Chinese proprietary medicine in Singapore in July 2006.

NeuroAid/Danqi Jiaonang is currently being studied at the acute stage of stroke, in a clinical trial conducted by , an international partnership of Key Opinion Leaders in stroke.

The main herbal and natural extracts contained in Danqi Jiaonang are Radix Astragali, Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, Radix Paeoniae rubra, Rhizoma chuanxiong, Radix notoginseng, Cortex moutan, Lignum Dalbergiae odoriferae, Radix polygalae, and Rhizoma Acori tatarinowii.

Daniel Reid

Daniel P. Reid, born in 1948 in San Francisco, is a noted writer specializing in Eastern philosophy, herbal medicine, and natural organic healing. He has authored many books and articles on Asian traditional medicine and self-healing methods. Reid also directs detoxification programs with his Taiwanese wife Snow, in Bali, Indonesia and also in Thailand.

Early years

Daniel Reid spent his childhood in East Africa. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in East Asian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley in 1970, and a Masters of Arts degree in Chinese Language and Civilization at the Monterey Institute of International Studies in 1973.


After graduation Reid moved to Taiwan, where he lived 16 years studying and writing about various aspects of traditional Chinese culture, focusing particularly on Chinese medicine and ancient Taoist health and longevity systems.


In 1989, Reid relocated to Chiang Mai, Thailand, where he continued his research and writing.


In 1999, Reid immigrated with his wife Snow to the Byron Bay region of Australia, where he now lives.


*1. The Tao of Health, Sex & Longevity. Simon & Schuster, New York & London, 1989).
*2. The Tao of Detox. Inner Traditions. USA, 2006)
*3. The Tao of Detox
*4. Chi-Gung: Harnessing the Power of the Universe
*5. Guide to Traditional Chinese Medicine
*6. Handbook of Chinese Healing Herbs
*7. The Complete Book of Chinese Health and Healing: Guarding the Three Treasures
*8. Guarding the Three Treasures: the Chinese Way of Health
*9. Guide to Koh Samui & Environs
*10. Insight Guide: East Asia
*11. Welcome to Taiwan
*12. Dragon Mountain
*13. Perspectives on Taiwan
*14. Images of Taiwan
*15. Insight Guide: Taiwan
*16. Complete Chinese Cookbook
*17. Complete Guide to China
*18. Chinese Mini-Cookbook Series: Chinese Homestyle Cuisine.
*19. Chi-Gung: Harnessing the Power of the Universe
*20. Guide to Traditional Chinese Medicine
*21. Handbook of Chinese Healing Herbs
*22. The Complete Book of Chinese Health and Healing: Guarding the Three Treasures
*23. Guarding the Three Treasures: the Chinese Way of Health
*24. Guide to Koh Samui & Environs
*25. Insight Guide: East Asia
*26. Welcome to Taiwan
*27. Dragon Mountain
*28. Perspectives on Taiwan
*29. Images of Taiwan
*30. Insight Guide: Taiwan
*31. Complete Chinese Cookbook
*32. Complete Guide to China
*33. "My Journey in Mystic China: Old Pu's Travel Diary" - An Englishman's Memoirs of China by John Blofeld translated from the Chinese by Daniel Reid. Inner Traditions, Vermont, USA, 2008).

Clark Stanley

Clark Stanley , the self-styled "Rattlesnake King," was known for popularizing snake oil as a patent medicine.

In 1879, after 11 years as a cowboy, Stanley studied for more than two years with a Moki medicine man at Walpi, Arizona. This included learning the secrets of snake oil. With the help of a Boston druggist he began marketing his product at Western medicine shows. In 1893 he and his rattlesnakes became a hit attraction at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. His act included the killing of rattlesnakes to begin the production of his medicine. Later he went on to establish production facilities in Beverly, Massachusetts and Providence, Rhode Island.

In 1915, subsequent to the passage of the ''Pure Food and Drug Act'' in 1906, Stanley's concoction was examined and found to be of no value . For this he was fined $20.00.


Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury sulfide , or native vermilion, the common ore of . The name comes from the - "kinnabari" - used by Theophrastus, and was probably applied to several distinct substances. Other sources say the word comes from the ''zinjifrah'', a word of uncertain origin. In Latin it was known as ''minium'', meaning also "red lead" - a word probably borrowed from .


HgS adopts two structures, i.e. it is dimorphous. The more stable form is cinnabar, which has a structure akin to that for : each Hg center has two short Hg-S bonds , and four longer Hg---S contacts . The black form of HgS has the zinc blende structure.


Cinnabar is generally found in a massive, granular or earthy form and is bright scarlet to brick-red in color. It occasionally occurs, however, in crystals with a non-metallic adamantine luster. Cinnabar has a rombohedral bravais lattice, and belongs to the hexagonal crystal system, trigonal division. Its crystals grow usually in a massive habit, though they are sometimes . The twinning in cinnabar is distinctive and forms a penetration twin that is ridged with six ridges surrounding the point of a pyramid. It could be thought of as two scalahedral crystals grown together with one crystal going the opposite way of the other crystal. The of cinnabar is 2 - 2.5, and its specific gravity 8.998.

Cinnabar resembles quartz in its symmetry and certain of its optical characteristics. Like quartz, it exhibits birefringence. It has the highest power of any mineral. Its mean for sodium light is 3.08, whereas the index for diamond—a substance of remarkable refraction— is 2.42 and that for GaAs is 3.93.

See List of indices of refraction.


Generally cinnabar occurs as a vein-filling mineral associated with recent and alkaline hot springs.

Cinnabar is found in all localities that yield mercury, notably Almadén ; New Almaden ; Hastings Mine and St. John's Mine, Vallejo, California; Idrija ; ; , near Obermoschel in the ; Ripa, at the foot of the Apuan Alps ; the mountain Avala ; Huancavelica ;Murfreesboro, Arkansas ; and the province of Guizhou in China, where fine crystals have been obtained.

Cinnabar is still being deposited at the present day from the hot waters of Sulphur Bank, in California, and Steamboat Springs, Nevada.

Mining and extraction of mercury

Cinnabar was mined by the Roman Empire both as a pigment and for its mercury content , and it has been the main source of mercury throughout the centuries. Some mines used by the Romans remain active today.

To produce liquid mercury, crushed cinnabar ore is roasted in rotary furnaces. Pure mercury separates from sulfur in this process and easily evaporates. A condensing column is used to collect the liquid mercury, which is most often shipped in iron flasks.

Because of the high toxicity of mercury, both the mining of cinnabar and refining for mercury are hazardous and historic causes of mercury poisoning. In particular, the Romans used convict labor in their mines as a form of death sentence. The Spanish also used shorter term convict labor at the Almadén mines, with a 24% overall fatality rate in one 30 year period.

Abandoned mercury mine processing sites often contain very hazardous waste piles of roasted cinnabar calcines. Water runoff from such sites is a recognized source of ecological damage.

Decorative use

Cinnabar has been used for its color in the new world since the Olmec culture. Cinnabar was often used in royal burial chambers during the peak of Mayan civilization. The red stone was inserted into limestone sarcophagi, both as a decoration and, more importantly, to deter vandals and thieves with its well-known toxicity.

The most popularly known use of cinnabar is in Chinese carved lacquerware, a technique that apparently originated in the Song Dynasty. The danger of mercury poisoning may be reduced in ancient lacquerware by entraining the powdered pigment in lacquer, but could still pose an environmental hazard if the pieces were accidentally destroyed. In the modern jewelry industry, the toxic pigment is replaced by a resin-based polymer that approximates the appearance of pigmented lacquer.

In the Byzantine Empire, the Emperor and certain privileged bishops were allowed the exclusive right of signing their names with ink colored vermilion by the addition of cinnabar.

Other forms of cinnabar

*Hepatic cinnabar is an impure variety from the mines of Idrija in the Carniola region of Slovenia, in which the cinnabar is mixed with and earthy matter.
*Metacinnabarite is a black-colored form of HgS, which crystallizes in the cubic form.
*Synthetic cinnabar is produced by treatment of Hg salts with hydrogen sulfide to precipitate black, synthetic metacinnabarite, which is then heated in water. This conversion is promoted by the presence of sodium sulfide.
*Hypercinnabar, crystallise in the hexagonal form.

Chinese wax

Chinese wax is a white to yellowish-white, gelatinous, water-insoluble substance obtained from the wax secreted by certain insects.

It resembles spermaceti but is harder, more friable, and with a higher melting point. It is deposited on the branches of certain trees by the scale insect ''Ceroplastes ceriferus'', common in China and India, or a related scale insect, ''Ericerus pela'', of China and Japan. The insects and their secretions are harvested and boiled with water to extract the raw wax. The insect bodies, which settle to the bottom, are used as food for swine.


Chinese wax is used chiefly in the manufacture of polishes, sizes, and candles.

In China the wax has been employed medicinally. Taken internally, it has been used as a remedy for hoarseness, , worms, nervousness, and to aid the mending of broken bones. Externally, it has been used as an ointment for treatment of wounds.

Other names

Other names of ''Chinese wax'' include:
*''Chinese tree wax''
*''Chinese insect wax''
*''insect wax''

Chinese scalp acupuncture

Chinese scalp acupuncture was developed by neurosurgeons and is based on the study of neuroanatomy. The practitioner indirectly stimulates regions of the brain that correspond to certain anatomical and physiological functions by applying needles or mild electrostimulation to corresponding points on the scalp. The aim is to trigger a process of relearning in which healthy areas of the brain take over for other areas that are no longer functioning effectively. For example, patients who have suffered stroke or other brain damage can regain the use of their arms or legs by stimulating new parts of the brain to take over this function. In China, this form of scalp acupuncture is a routine part of treatment for brain-injured patients. ?


* Acute and chronic pain of all kinds??
* Pain and dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system
* Improved post-operative mobilization??
* Nerve pain??
* Functional disorders??
* Neurological disorders
* Stroke??
* Facial paralysis??
* Spasticity??
* Birth injuries
* Developmental disorders in children

Chinese patent medicine

Chinese patent medicine , is a kind of Chinese herbology. It is a formula.


Chinese patent medicines generally consist of several herbs and other ingredients, dried and ground into powder, mixed and formed into pills. The is traditionally honey. The pills are often small, spherical, and black, appearing like black pearls. They may come in other forms such as liquids, powders, or capsules. Companies make Chinese patent medicines both within and outside China.

These medicines are not "patented" in the traditional sense of the word. No one has exclusive rights to the formula. Instead, "patent" refers to the standardization of the formula. All Chinese patent medicines of the same name can be expected to have the same proportions of ingredients.

Chinese patent medicines are similar to patent medicines of the West, but there are some differences. For instance, the efficacy of Western patent medicines are often questionable, and ingredients are usually kept secret. There has been much research on the effects of Chinese patent medicines, and the ingredients are clearly known and usually written right on the bottle.

Chinese patent medicines are easy to use and convenient, but they do not lend themselves to customized or acute treatment. They are best used when a patient's condition is not severe and the medicine can be taken as a long-term treatment.

Herbal formulas

Chinese classic herbal formulas form the basis of Chinese patent medicine. These are the basic herbal formulas that students of Traditional Chinese medicine learn. Later, students will adapt these classic formulas to match the needs of each patient.

Many of these formulas are quite old. For example, "Liu Wei Di Huang Wan" was developed by Qian Yi . It was published in the "The Correct Execution of Pediatric Medicinals and Patterns" in 1119 by Qian Yi's student.


Heavy metal contamination

Some Chinese patent medicines were tested and found to contain high to dangerous levels of heavy metals . The most common heavy metals found were , lead, and arsenic. These ingredients can cause serious medical problems.

Pharmaceutical adulterants

Some Chinese patent medicines were found to contain such as decongestants, analgesics or antihistamines. The most common Chinese patent medicines found to carry pharmaceutical drugs were for the treatment of asthma, pain, and arthritis .

Prohibited ingredients

Some Chinese patent medicines contain ingredients which are in other countries. The two most common prohibited herbs are and . On 30 December 2003, the in the announced a ban , on these herbs from all dietary supplements. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are exempt from this law.

Chinese herbology

Chinese Herbology , is the common name for the subject of Chinese ''materia medica''. It includes the basic theory of Chinese ''materia medica'', "crude medicine," "prepared drug in pieces" and traditional Chinese patent medicines and simple preparations' source, collection and preparation, performance, efficacy, and clinical applications.

Chinese ''materia medica'' , is also the medicine based on traditional Chinese medicine theory. it includes Chinese crude medicine, prepared drug in pieces of Chinese ''materia medica'', traditional Chinese patent medicines and simple preparations, etc.

Herbology is the art of combining medicinal herbs.

Herbology is traditionally one of the more important modalities utilized in traditional Chinese medicine . Each herbal medicine prescription is a cocktail of many herbs tailored to the individual patient. One batch of herbs is typically decocted twice over the course of one hour. The practitioner usually designs a remedy using one or two main ingredients that target the illness. Then the practitioner adds many other ingredients to adjust the formula to the patient's conditions. Sometimes, ingredients are needed to cancel out toxicity or side-effects of the main ingredients. Some herbs require the use of other ingredients as catalyst or else the brew is ineffective. The latter steps require great experience and knowledge, and make the difference between a good Chinese herbal doctor and an amateur. Unlike medications, the balance and interaction of all the ingredients are considered more important than the effect of individual ingredients. A key to success in TCM is the treatment of each patient as an individual.

Chinese herbology often incorporates ingredients from all parts of plants, the leaf, stem, flower, root, and also ingredients from animals and minerals. The use of parts of endangered species has created controversy and resulted in a black market of poachers who hunt restricted animals. Many herbal manufacturers have discontinued the use of any parts from endangered animals.

History of Chinese herbology

Chinese herbs have been used for centuries. The first herbalist in Chinese tradition is Shennong, a mythical personage, who is said to have tasted hundreds of herbs and imparted his knowledge of medicinal and poisonous plants to the agricultural people. The first Chinese manual on pharmacology, the Shennong Bencao Jing , lists some 365 medicines of which 252 of them are herbs, and dates back somewhere in the 1st century C.E. Han dynasty. Earlier literature included lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by a manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangdui tomb, sealed in 168 B.C.E.

Succeeding generations augmented on this work, as in the ''Yaoxing Lun'' , a 7th century Tang Dynasty Chinese treatise on herbal medicine.

Arguably the most important of these was the Compendium of Materia Medica compiled during the Ming dynasty by Li Shizhen, which is still used today for consultation and reference.

The history of this literature is presented in Paul U. Unschuld's "Medicine in China: a History of Pharmaceutics"; Univ. of Calif. Press, 1986.

Categorizing Chinese herbs

Chinese physicians used several different methods to classify traditional Chinese herbs:

*The Four Natures
*The Five Tastes
*The Meridians

The earlier Ben Cao began with a three-level categorization:

Low level -- drastic acting, toxic substances;
Middle level -- medicinal physiological effects;
High level -- health and spirit enhancement

During the neo-Confucian Song-Jin-Yuan era , the theoretical framework from acupuncture theory was formally applied to herbal categorization . In particular, alignment with the Five Phases and the 12 channels came to be used after this period.

The Four Natures

This pertains to the degree of yin and yang, ranging from cold , cool, neutral to warm and hot . The patient's internal balance of yin and yang is taken into account when the herbs are selected. For example, medicinal herbs of "hot", yang nature are used when the person is suffering from internal cold that requires to be purged, or when the patient has a general cold constituency. Sometimes an ingredient is added to offset the extreme effect of one herb.

The Five Tastes

The five tastes are pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty, each of which their functions and characteristics. For example, pungent herbs are used to generate sweat and to direct and vitalize ''qi'' and the blood. Sweet-tasting herbs often tonify or harmonize bodily systems. Some sweet-tasting herbs also exhibit a bland taste, which helps drain dampness through diuresis. Sour taste most often is astringent or consolidates, while bitter taste dispels heat, purges the bowels and get rid of dampness by drying them out. Salty tastes soften hard masses as well as purge and open the bowels.

The Meridians

The Meridians refer to which organs the herb acts upon. For example, menthol is pungent, cool and is linked with the lungs and the liver. Since the lungs is the organ which protects the body from invasion from cold and influenza, menthol can help purge coldness in the lungs and invading heat toxins caused by hot "wind."

Chinese patent medicine

Chinese patent medicine is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. They are formulas. Several herbs and other ingredients are dried and ground. They are then mixed into a powder and formed into pills. The is traditionally honey. They are characteristically little round black pills.

Chinese patent medicines are easy and convenient. They are not easy to customize on a patient-by-patient basis, however. They are best used when a patient's condition is not severe and the medicine can be taken as a long-term treatment.

These medicines are not "patented" in the traditional sense of the word. No one has exclusive rights to the formula. Instead, "patent" refers to the standardization of the formula. All Chinese patent medicines of the same name will have the same proportions of ingredients.

50 fundamental herbs

In Chinese herbology, there are 50 "fundamental herbs." These include:
#''Agastache rugosa'' - huò xiāng
#''Alangium chinense'' - bā jiǎo fēng
#''Anemone chinensis'' - bái tóu weng
#''Anisodus tanguticus'' - shān làng dàng
#''Ardisia japonica'' - zǐ jīn niú
#''Aster tataricus'' - zǐ wǎn
#''Astragalus propinquus'' - huáng qí or běi qí - zǐ huā màn tuó luó
#''Dendrobium nobile'' - shí hú or shí hú lán
#''Dichroa febrifuga'' - cháng shān
#''Ephedra sinica'' - cǎo má huáng
#'''' - dù zhòng
#''Euphorbia pekinensis'' - dà jǐ
#''Flueggea suffruticosa'' - yī yè qiū
#''Forsythia suspensa'' - liánqiào
#''Gentiana loureiroi'' - dì dīng
#''Gleditsia sinensis'' - zào jiá
#''Glycyrrhiza uralensis'' - gān cǎo
#''Hydnocarpus anthelminticus'' - dà fēng zǐ
#''Ilex purpurea'' - dōngqīng
#''Leonurus japonicus'' - yì mǔ cǎo
#''Ligusticum wallichii'' - chuān xiōng
#''Lobelia chinensis'' - bàn biān lián
#''Phellodendron amurense'' - huáng bǎi
#''Platycladus orientalis'' - cèbǎi
#''Pseudolarix amabilis'' - jīn qián sōng
#''Psilopeganum sinense'' - shān má huáng
#'''' - gé gēn
#''Rauwolfia serpentina'' - shégēnmù , cóng shégēnmù , or yìndù shé mù
#''Rehmannia glutinosa'' - dìhuáng or gān dìhuáng
#''Rheum officinale'' - yào yòng dà huáng
#''Rhododendron tsinghaiense'' - Qīng hǎi dù juān
#''Saussurea costus'' - yún mù xiāng
#''Schisandra chinensis'' - wǔ wèi zi
#''Scutellaria baicalensis'' - huáng qín
#''Stemona tuberosa'' - bǎi bù
#''Stephania tetrandra'' - fáng jǐ
#''Styphnolobium japonicum'' - huái , huái shù , or huái huā
#''Trichosanthes kirilowii'' - guā lóu
#''Wikstroemia indica'' - liǎo gē wáng

=General references

*Wong, Ming . ''La Médecine chinoise par les plantes''. Le Corps a Vivre series. ?ditions Tchou.

Educational resources

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Chinese classic herbal formula

Chinese classic herbal formulas are a form of Chinese herbology. They are the basic herbal formulas that students of Traditional Chinese medicine learn. Later these students will adapt these classic formulas to match the needs of each patient.


Many of these formulas were created by the pioneers of Chinese medicine and are quite old. For example, "Liu Wei Di Huang Wan" was developed by Qian Yi . It was published in the "Xiao'er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue" in 1119 by Qian Yi's student.

Modern Usage

Many of these formulas are still made in the form of Chinese patent medicine. These formulas are also used in kampo . In Japan, herbalists do not create medicine for each patient. Instead the herbalist will choose an formula that has been by the Japanese government. These formulas are based on the Chinese classic herbal formulas. They often vary slightly, however. Sometimes Chinese plants are substituted for plants found in Japan. Or the proportions of the formula are changed slightly.

Chinese classic herbal formula list

There are hundreds of Chinese classic herbal formulas. Many are slight variations of other formulas, however. It is difficult to define which of these formulas are the most common. The two leading brands to export Chinese classic herbal formulas in the form of Chinese patent medicine from China are Mín Shān and Plum Flower . These are the formulas made by these 2 brands.

|shēng mài sǎn wán
|Shi Quan Da Bu Wan
|Ten Flavor Teapills
|shíquán dàbǔ wán
|Shihu Yeguang Wan
|shíhú yèguāng wán
|Shou Wu Pian
|shǒu wū piàn
|Shou Wu Essence
|shǒu wū zhī
|Shu Gan Wan
|Soothe Liver Teapills
|shū gān wán
|Si Jun Zi Tang Wan
|Four Gentlemen Teapills
|sì jūn zǐ tāng wán
|Si Miao Wan
|Four Marvel Teapills
|sì miào wán
|Si Ni San Wan
|Four Pillars Teapills
|sì nì sǎn wán
|Si Wu Tang Wan
|Four Substances For Women
|sì wù tāng wán
|Suan Zao Ren Tang Pian
|suān zǎo rén tāng piàn
|Tao Hong Si Wu Tang Wan
|táo hóng sì wù tāng wán
|Tao Ren Wan / Run Chang Wan
|Peach Kernel Teapills
|桃仁丸 / 润肠丸
|桃仁丸 / 潤腸丸
|táo rén wán / rùn cháng wán
|Tian Ma Gou Teng Yin Wan
|tiān má gōu téng yǐn wán
|Tian Ma Mi Huan Su
|tiān má mì huán sù
|Tianma Wan
|tiānmá wán
|Tian Qi Du Zhong Wan
|tián qī dù zhòng wán
|Tian Qi Wan
|tián qī wán
|Tian Tai Wu Yao Wan
|Lindera Combination Teapills
|tiān tái wū yào wán
|Tian Wang Bu Xin Dan
|Emperor's Teapills
|tiānwáng bǔxīn dān
|Tong Jing Wan
|Calm In The Sea Of Life Teapills
|tōng jīng wán
|Tong Qiao Huo Xue Wan
|tōng qiào huó xuè wán
|Tong Shun Wan
|tōng shùn wán
|Tong Xie Yao Fang Wan
|Calm Wind Teapills
|tòng xiè yào fāng wán
|Wen Dan Tang Wan
|Rising Courage Teapills
|wēn dǎn tāng wán
|Wen Jing Tang Wan
|Warm Cycle Teapills
|wēn jīng tāng wán
|Wuji Baifeng Wan
|Wuchi Paifeng Wan
|wūjī báifèng wán
|Wu Ling San Wan
|wǔ líng sǎn wán
|Wu Pi Yin Wan
|Five Peel Teapills
|wǔ pí yǐn wán
|Wuren Wan
|Five Seed Teapills
|wǔrén wán
|Wu Wei Xiao Du Wan
|Five Flavor Teapills
|wǔ wèi xiāo dú wán
|Wuzi Yanzong Wan
|Five Ancestors Teapills
|wǔzǐ yǎnzōng wán
|Xiang Fu Li Zhong Wan
|xiāng fù lǐ zhōng wán
|Xiang Lian Wan
|Aucklandia & Coptis Teapills
|xiāng lián wán
|Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Wan
|Six Gentlemen Plus Teapills
|xiāng shā liù jūn zǐ wán
|Xiangsha Yangwei Wan
|xiāngshā yǎngwèi wán
|Xiao Chai Hu Tang Wan
|xiǎo chái hú tāng wán
|Xiao Feng Wan
|Great Windkeeper Teapills
|xiāo fēng wán
|Xiao Huo Luo Dan Wan
|xiǎo huó luò dān wán
|Xiao Jian Zhong Wan
|Minor Restore The Middle Teapills
|xiǎo jiàn zhōng wán
|Xiao Qing Long Wan
|Minor Blue Dragon Teapills
|xiǎo qīng lóng wán
|Xiao Yao Wan
|Free & Easy Wanderer Teapills
|xiāo yáo wán
|Xin Yi Wan
|Magnolia Flower Teapills
|xīn yí wán
|Xuan Bi Wan
|xuān bì wán
|Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang Wan
|Stasis In The Mansion Of Blood Teapills
|xuè fǔ zhú yū tāng wán
|Yan Hu Suo Zhi Tong Wan
|Great Corydalis Teapills
|yán hú suǒ zhǐ tòng wán
|Yang Rong Wan
|yǎng róng wán
|Yang Ying Wan
|yǎng yíng wán
|Yao Tong Pian
|yāo tòng piàn
|Yi Guan Jian Wan
|Linking Decoction Teapills
|yī guàn jiān wán
|Yin Qiao Jie Du Pian
|Yin Chiao Chieh Tu Pien
|yín qiáo jiě dú piàn
|Yougui Wan
|Right Side Replenishing Teapills
|yòuguī wán
|Yu Dai Wan
|yù dài wán
|Yu Ping Feng San Wan
|Jade Screen Teapills
|yù píng fēng sǎn wán
|Yu Quan Wan
|Jade Spring Teapills
|yù quán wán
|Zhen Gan Xi Feng Wan
|zhèn gān xī fēng wán
|Zhen Wu Tang Wan
|True Warrior Teapills
|zhēn wǔ tāng wán
|Zhibai Dihuang Wan
|Eight Flavor Rehmannia Teapills
|zhībǎi dìhuáng wán
|Zhi Gan Cao Wan
|zhì gān cǎo wán
|Zhong Gan Ling
|zhòng gǎn líng
|Zhong Guo Tong Xue Pian
|China Tung Hsueh Pills
|zhōng guó tōng xuè piàn
|Zhui Feng Tou Gu Wan
|Chui Feng Tou Gu Wan
|zhuī fēng tòu gǔ wán
|Zi Sheng Wan
|zī shēng wán
|Zuogui Wan
|Left Side Replenishing Teapills
|zuǒguī wán

Channel (Chinese medicine)

Channel , also known as meridian, in traditional Chinese medicine, is the common name of vessel and collaterals . It is the path of running qi and blood , connection zang-fu viscera , communication inside and outside, and run through top and bottom.

It is from the techniques and doctrines of Traditional Chinese Medicine , including acupuncture, acupressure, and qigong. According to these practices, the body's energy, "qi", circulates through the body along specific interconnected channels called ''meridians''. There is no physically verifiable anatomical or histological proof of their existence. Research is purported to show how transmission of information experienced as qi could be possible through the subcutaneous fascia.


In TCM, patterns of disharmony in the body are thought to be caused by disruptions of the body's energy flow along a series of acu-tracts. To correct those disruptions, specific points on the meridians called acupoints are stimulated via needles, burning incense cones , applying pressure or other means.

There are about 400 acupuncture points and 20 meridians connecting most of the points, however by the 2nd Century CE, 649 were recognised in China. Such 20 meridians are usually called the "twelve regular channels" or "twelve regular meridians" , with each meridian corresponding to each organ; nourishing it and extending to an extremity. There are also "Eight Extraordinary Channels" or "Eight Extraordinary Meridians" , two of which have their own sets of points, and the remaining ones connecting points on other channels.

The ''twelve standard meridians'' go along the arms and the legs. They are: Lung, Large Intestine, Stomach, Spleen, Heart, Small Intestine, Urinary Bladder, Kidney, Pericardium, Triple Warmer , Gall Bladder, and Liver. These terms refer to biological functions and not the structural organ, which is why there are some on the list with no corresponding anatomical structure.

Meridians are divided into Yin and Yang groups. The Yin meridians of the arm are: Lung, Heart, and Pericardium. The Yang meridians of the arm are: Large Intestine, Small Intestine, and Triple Warmer. The Yin Meridians of the leg are Spleen, Kidney, and Liver. The Yang meridians of the leg are Stomach, Bladder, and Gall Bladder.

The table below gives a more systematic list of the meridians:

Authors Hernan Garcia and Sierra Antonio argue that the Chinese meridians have their counterpart in the acupuncture techniques practiced in the Yucatan. They say that the analogous concept is that of wind channels, and that most of the key points in Mayan acupuncture correspond with key acupuncture points in the Chinese meridian model.

Author Alberto Villoldo indicates that these Chinese meridians coincided exactly with the flux lines or cekes which are known to Inca medicine people as rios de luz, rivers of light that flow within the luminous body. The kawak, the seers, can see the rivers of light or cekes along the surface of the skin. And Shamans throughout the Americas rely on their ability to massage the points where it was blocked so that the light could flow freely again.

Modern Channel History

1996, Deng Yu et al "fractal dimension of the meridian and the form of anatomy"

Zhang in 1996, "gap dimension" meridians

In 1985, France de Vernejoul P tracer isotope imaging methods; In addition, France Niboyet study of electric skin.

In 1984, Xie Haoran, the meridian of human anatomical structure of space observation.

In 1984, Hungary Eore use carbon dioxide detector meridian research.

1980 Zhang Baozhen to the naked eye, such as the use of on-chip shop on the ground to observe and vascular perfusion.

1978 Meridian Meng Zhao Wei's third-balance system

1972 year Wang Tong proposed that channels and collaterals' essence was double reflection hypothesis.

in the 1970s Japanese scholar this Shan Bo 本山博 with the liquid crystal thin film law observation, followed after transmission on-line temperature change.

In 1970, France J. Borsarello the use of infrared thermal imaging method of Meridian Research.

1956 Nogierop to the Chinese ear acupuncture points on the map and the role of research.

In 1955, Nakatani Kazuo 中谷一雄 "well transmit sub-meshwork " results, Sasakawa 笹川 "good points lead", "Ryodoraku ".

In 1952, Fujita Rokuro 藤田六郎 put forward the hypothesis on the meridian.

In 1950, Japan Nagahama 长滨善夫 reported on followed Meridian of sense of mass transmission phenomenon.

Fractal Channel

Fractal fractal dimension channels and collaterals shape and dissection structure

in 1996,
Deng Yu et al, Beijing Jiuxianqiao Hospital.

Channels and collaterals' fractal fractal dimension characteristic is the channels and collaterals shape dissection, the organizational structure foundation and the essence. Why is this also channels and collaterals' dissection structure not easily the basic reason which was discovered by the predecessor. It has promulgated channels and collaterals' fractal fractal dimension characteristic, also revealed for the channels and collaterals mass transfer mechanism opened the new path, enabled to have the fractal dimension characteristic, the similar fractal dimension membrane or the chromatographic analysis column type “microscopic dynamic `static shuts activity open' the fractal fractal dimension `cell backfill ' the channels and collaterals model” to arise at the historic moment.

Criticism of TCM meridian theory

:''See also: ''
In 1694, during the "quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns", after having seen some meridian diagrams from the and misinterpreting them as anatomical drawings, British Scholar William Wotton wrote this famous criticism of TCM:

:It would be tedious to dwell any longer upon such Notions as these, which every page of Cleyer's book is full of. The Anatomical Figures annexed to the Tracts, which also were sent out of China, are so very whimsical, that a Man would almost believe the whole to be a Banter, if these Theories were not agreeable to the occasional hints that may be found in the Travels of the Missionaries. This, however, does no prejudice to their , which may, perhaps, be very admirable, and which a long Experience may have taught the Chineses to apply with great success; and it is possible that they may sometimes give not unhappy Guesses in ordinary Cases, by feeling their Patients Pulses: Still, this is little to Physic, as an Art; and however, the Chineses may be allowed to be excellent Empiricks, as many of the West-Indian Salvages are, yet it cannot be believed that they can be tolerable Philosophers; which, in an Enquiry into the Learning of any Nation, is the first Question that is to be considered.

Skeptics of Traditional Chinese Medicine often characterize the system as . Proponents reply that TCM is a prescientific system that continues to have practical relevance. Others will say that this is a simple communication mismatch between the Western medical system focused on form, and the holistic Eastern system focused on function, and that they are both valid ways to approach development of knowledge.


* Lo S.Y. . Medical Hypotheses 58:72-76.
*J. Kwon et al., "Scanning probe microscopy study of microcells from the organ surface Bonghan corpuscle", Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, article number 173903, 2007.

Capsicum Plaster

Capsicum Plaster is a type of that is applied to relieve pain and reduce counteritching in patients. It is very common in Chinese medicine, like acupuncture.


* –Collection of research publications on capsicum plaster's pain alleviating properties.

Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan

Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan is a Chinese classic herbal formula. In kampo, it is known as "Hochū-ekki-tō" . It is commonly made into Chinese patent medicine.


The formula was created by Lǐ Dōng-yuán . It was published in "Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach" in 1249.

There are many variations of the formula proportions. Each maker of Chinese patent medicine changes the proportions of the herbs slightly. The proportions are in the kampo formula, however. Some herbs may be changed also. For example, may be replaced with .

The formula was also changed slightly when it was borrowed as a Japanese kampo formula. Some species of herbs were replaced with herbs found in Japan. For example, was replaced with .

Chinese classic herbal formula

Japanese kampo formula

Blood stasis

Blood stasis syndrome, or blood stagnation is an important underlying pathology of many disease processes according to traditional Chinese medicine. Described in TCM theory as a slowing or pooling of the blood due to disruption of Heart Qi, it is often understood in biomedical terms in terms of disorders such as hemorrhage, congestion, thrombosis, and local ischemia and tissue changes.

Amur cork tree fruit oil

Amur cork tree fruit oil is a extracted from the fruit of ''Phellodendron amurense'', the Amur Cork Tree. The bark of the tree is an important herbal medicine in China. The oil has properties similar to pyrethrum. The oil contains a variety of biologically active substances, including flavonoids , alkaloids , saponins and coumarins. Medicinal applications of the oil include treatment of pancreatitis, reduction of cholesterol and in blood and the treatment of various skin diseases.


Acupuncture or in Standard Mandarin, 針砭 is a technique of inserting and manipulating fine needles into specific points on the body with the aim of relieving pain and for therapeutic purposes. According to traditional Chinese acupuncture theory, these acupuncture points lie along along which qi, the vital energy, flows. There is no generally-accepted anatomical or histological basis for these concepts, Acupuncture originated in China and is most commonly associated with traditional Chinese medicine . Different types of acupuncture are practiced and taught throughout the world.

While acupuncture has been a subject of active scientific research since the late 20th century, its effects are not well-understood, and it remains controversial among researchers and clinicians. The body of evidence remains inconclusive but is active and growing.



In China, the practice of acupuncture can perhaps be traced as far back as the Stone Age, with the ''Bian shi'', or sharpened stones.
Stone acupuncture needles dating back to 3000 B.C. have been found by archeologists in Inner Mongolia. Clearer evidence exists from the , and archeological evidence has been identified with the period of the Han dynasty .

Recent examinations of ?tzi, a 5,000-year-old mummy found in the Alps, have identified over 50 tattoos on his body, some of which are located on acupuncture points that would today be used to treat ailments ?tzi suffered from. Some scientists believe that this is evidence that practices similar to acupuncture were practiced elsewhere in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age. According to an article published in The Lancet by Dorfer ''et al.'', "We hypothesised that there might have been a medical system similar to acupuncture that was practiced in Central Europe 5,200 years ago... A treatment modality similar to acupuncture thus appears to have been in use long before its previously known period of use in the medical tradition of ancient China. This raises the possibility of acupuncture having originated in the Eurasian continent at least 2000 years earlier than previously recognised.", .

Acupuncture's origins in China are uncertain. The earliest Chinese medical text that first describes acupuncture is the Yellow Emperor’s ''Classic of Internal Medicine '' Huangdi Neijing, which was compiled around 305–204 B.C. However, the Chinese medical texts do not mention acupuncture. Some hieroglyphics have been found dating back to 1000 B.C. that may indicate an early use of acupuncture. Bian stones, sharp pointed rocks used to treat diseases in ancient times, have also been discovered in ruins; some scholars believe that the bloodletting for which these stones were likely used presages certain acupuncture techniques.

According to one legend,, acupuncture started in China when some soldiers who were wounded by arrows in battle experienced a relief of pain in other parts of the body, and consequently people started experimenting with arrows as therapy.

Middle history

Acupuncture spread from China to Japan, Korea, Vietnam and elsewhere in East Asia. missionaries in the 16th century were among the first to bring reports of acupuncture to the West.

Modern era

Following the of 1911 in China, Western Medicine was introduced and acupuncture and Chinese herbology were in drastic decline. Due to the large population and need for medical care, acupuncture and herbs remained popular among the folk people, and later on with the emergence of "barefoot doctors."

Acupuncture was used exclusively during the Long March and despite harsh conditions it helped maintain the health of the People's Liberation Army. In the late 1950s to the 1960s, acupuncture research continued with further study of the ancient texts, clinical effect on various diseases, acupuncture anesthesia, and acupuncture's effect on the internal organs.

Criticism of TCM theory

TCM theory predates use of the scientific method and has received various criticisms based on scientific reductionist thinking, since there is no physically verifiable anatomical or histological basis for the existence of acupuncture points or .

Felix Mann, founder and past-president of the Medical Acupuncture Society , the first president of the , and the author of the first comprehensive English language acupuncture textbook ''Acupuncture: The Ancient Chinese Art of Healing''' first published in 1962, has stated in his book ''Reinventing Acupuncture: A New Concept of Ancient Medicine'':


A report for CSICOP on pseudoscience in China written by Wallace Sampson and Barry Beyerstein said:

George A. Ulett, MD, PhD, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Missouri School of Medicine states: "Devoid of metaphysical thinking, acupuncture becomes a rather simple technique that can be useful as a nondrug method of pain control." He believes that the traditional Chinese variety is primarily a placebo treatment, but electrical stimulation of about 80 acupuncture points has been proven useful for pain control.

Ted J. Kaptchuk, author of ''The Web That Has No Weaver'', refers to acupuncture as "prescientific." Regarding TCM theory, Kaptchuk states:

According to the 1997 NIH consensus statement on acupuncture:

quote|Despite considerable efforts to understand the anatomy and physiology of the "acupuncture points", the definition and characterization of these points remains controversial. Even more elusive is the basis of some of the key traditional Eastern medical concepts such as the circulation of Qi, the meridian system, and the five phases theory, which are difficult to reconcile with contemporary biomedical information but continue to play an important role in the evaluation of patients and the formulation of treatment in acupuncture. The conditions labeled with * are also included in the World Health Organization list of acupuncture indications..

These cases are based on clinical experience and are not necessarily substantiated by controlled clinical research. The inclusion of specific diseases is not meant to indicate the extent of acupuncture's efficacy in treating them.
*Selected dermatoses
*Sequelae of stroke syndrome *
*Seventh nerve palsy
*Severe hyperthermia
*Sleep disorders
*Sprains and contusions
*Temporo-mandibular joint derangement, bruxism *
*Urinary incontinence, retention *
*Weight Loss

Scientific theories and mechanisms of action

Many hypotheses have been proposed to address the physiological mechanisms of action of acupuncture. To date, more than 10,000 scientific research studies have been published on acupuncture as catalogued by the National Library of Medicine database.

Neurohormonal theory

Pain transmission can also be modulated at many other levels in the brain along the pain pathways, including the periaqueductal gray, thalamus, and the feedback pathways from the cerebral cortex back to the thalamus. Pain blockade at these brain locations is often mediated by neurohormones, especially those that bind to the opioid receptors .

Some studies suggest that the analgesic action of acupuncture is associated with the release of natural endorphins in the brain. This effect can be inferred by blocking the action of endorphins using a drug called naloxone. When naloxone is administered to the patient, the analgesic effects of morphine can be reversed, causing the patient to feel pain again. When naloxone is administered to an acupunctured patient, the analgesic effect of acupuncture can also be reversed, causing the patient to report an increased level of pain. It should be noted, however, that studies using similar procedures, including the administration of naloxone, have suggested a role of endogenous opioids in the placebo response, demonstrating that this response is not unique to acupuncture.

One study performed on monkeys by recording the neural activity directly in the thalamus of the brain indicated that acupuncture's analgesic effect lasted more than an hour. Furthermore, there is a large overlap between the nervous system and acupuncture trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome.

Evidence suggests that the sites of action of analgesia associated with acupuncture include the thalamus using fMRI and PET brain imaging techniques, and via the feedback pathway from the cerebral cortex using electrophysiological recording of the nerve impulses of neurons directly in the cortex, which shows inhibitory action when acupuncture stimulus is applied. Similar effects have been observed in association with the placebo response. One study using fMRI found that placebo analgesia was associated with decreased activity in the thalamus, insula and anterior cingulate cortex.

Recently, acupuncture has been shown to increase the nitric oxide levels in treated regions, resulting in increased local blood circulation. Effects on local inflammation and ischemia have also been reported.

Issues in study design

One of the major challenges in acupuncture research is in the design of an appropriate placebo control group. In trials of new drugs, double blinding is the accepted standard, but since acupuncture is a procedure rather than a pill, it is difficult to design studies in which both the acupuncturist and patient are blinded as to the treatment being given. The same problem arises in double-blinding procedures used in biomedicine, including virtually all surgical procedures, dentistry, physical therapy, ''etc.''

Blinding of the practitioner in acupuncture remains challenging. One proposed solution to blinding patients has been the development of "sham acupuncture", ''i.e.'', needling performed superficially or at non-acupuncture sites. Controversy remains over whether, and under what conditions, sham acupuncture may function as a true placebo, particularly in studies on pain, in which insertion of needles anywhere near painful regions may elicit a beneficial response.

Scientific research into efficacy

Evidence-based medicine

There is scientific agreement that an evidence-based medicine framework should be used to assess health outcomes and that systematic reviews with strict protocols are essential. Organisations such as the Cochrane Collaboration and publish such reviews. In practice, EBM is "about integrating individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence" and thus does not demand that doctors ignore research outside its "top-tier" criteria .

The development of the evidence base for acupuncture was summarized in a review by researcher Edzard Ernst and colleagues in 2007. They compared systematic reviews conducted in 2000 and 2005:
:The effectiveness of acupuncture remains a controversial issue. ... The results indicate that the evidence base has increased for 13 of the 26 conditions included in this comparison. For 7 indications it has become more positive and for 6 it had changed in the opposite direction. It is concluded, that acupuncture research is active. The emerging clinical evidence seems to imply that acupuncture is effective for some but not all conditions.

For low back pain, a Cochrane review stated:
:Thirty-five RCTs covering 2861 patients were included in this systematic review. There is insufficient evidence to make any recommendations about acupuncture or for acute low-back pain. For chronic low-back pain, results show that acupuncture is more effective for pain relief than no treatment or sham treatment, in measurements taken up to three months. The results also show that for chronic low-back pain, acupuncture is more effective for improving function than no treatment, in the short-term. Acupuncture is not more effective than other conventional and "alternative" treatments. When acupuncture is added to other conventional therapies, it relieves pain and improves function better than the conventional therapies alone. However, effects are only small. Dry-needling appears to be a useful adjunct to other therapies for chronic low-back pain.

A 2008 study suggest that combining acupuncture with conventional infertility treatments such as IVF greatly improves the success rates of such medical interventions.

A review by Manheimer ''et al.'' in ''Annals of Internal Medicine'' reached conclusions similar to Cochrane's review on low back pain. A review for the American Pain Society/American College of Physicians found fair evidence that acupuncture is effective for chronic low back pain.

For nausea and vomiting: The Cochrane review on the use of the P6 acupoint for the reduction of post-operative nausea and vomiting concluded that the use of P6 acupoint stimulation can reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting with minimal side effects, albeit with efficacy less than or equal to prophylactic treatment with antiemetic drugs. Cochrane also stated: "Electroacupuncture is effective for first day vomiting after chemotherapy, but trials considering modern antivomiting drugs are needed."

A 2007 Cochrane Review for the use of acupuncture for neck pain stated:
:There is moderate evidence that acupuncture relieves pain better than some sham treatments, measured at the end of the treatment. There is moderate evidence that those who received acupuncture reported less pain at short term follow-up than those on a waiting list. There is also moderate evidence that acupuncture is more effective than inactive treatments for relieving pain post-treatment and this is maintained at short-term follow-up.

For headache, Cochrane concluded that "verall, the existing evidence supports the value of acupuncture for the treatment of idiopathic headaches. However, the quality and amount of evidence are not fully convincing. There is an urgent need for well-planned, large-scale studies to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of acupuncture under real-life conditions." .

For osteoarthritis, reviews since 2006 show a trivial difference between sham and true acupuncture.

For fibromyalgia, a systematic review of the best 5 randomized controlled trials available found mixed results. Three positive studies, all using electro-acupuncture, found short term benefits. The methodological quality of the 5 trials was mixed and frequently low.

For the following conditions, the Cochrane Collaboration has concluded there is insufficient evidence to determine whether acupuncture is beneficial, often because of the paucity and poor quality of the research, and that further research is needed:

* Chronic asthma
* Bell's palsy
* Cocaine dependence
* Primary dysmenorrhoea
* Epilepsy
* Glaucoma
* Insomnia
* Irritable bowel syndrome
* Induction of childbirth
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Shoulder pain
* Schizophrenia
* Smoking cessation
* Acute stroke
* Stroke rehabilitation
* Tennis elbow
* Vascular dementia

Positive results from some studies on the efficacy of acupuncture may be as a result of poorly designed studies or publication bias.

Evidence from neuroimaging studies

Acupuncture appears to have effects on cortical activity, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. A 2005 literature review concluded that neuroimaging data to date show some promise for being able to distinguish the effects of expectation, placebo, and real acupuncture. The studies reviewed were mostly small and pain-related, and more research is needed to determine the specificity of neural substrate activation in non-painful indications.

NIH consensus statement

In 1997, the National Institutes of Health issued a on acupuncture that concluded that
:''there is sufficient evidence of acupuncture's value to expand its use into conventional medicine and to encourage further studies of its physiology and clinical value.''
''"There is little evidence to confirm the safety or efficacy of most alternative therapies. Much of the information currently known about these therapies makes it clear that many have not been shown to be efficacious. Well-designed, stringently controlled research should be done to evaluate the efficacy of alternative therapies."''

German study

A German study published in the September 2007 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine found that nearly half of patients treated with acupuncture or a sham treatment felt relief from chronic low back pain over a period of months compared to just nearly a quarter of those receiving a variety of more conventional treatments The greater benefit of the real and sham treatments were not significantly different.

Nonacupuncture points

A controlled study of 300 migraine patients found that both sham and real acupuncture resulted in improvements compared with patients on a waiting list, with no significant difference in benefit between the sham and active treatment groups. The sham treatment involved actual needles piercing the skin, but at nonacupuncture points.

Some researchers have questioned the use of sham acupuncture as a control in this study and others, arguing that sham acupuncture may be too similar to real acupuncture to be a valid control, thereby skewing results toward showing a relative lack of efficacy.

Safety and risks

Because acupuncture needles penetrate the skin, many forms of acupuncture are procedures, and therefore not without risk. Injuries are rare among patients treated by trained practitioners. In most jurisdictions, needles are required by law to be sterile, disposable and used only once; in some places, needles may be reused if they are first resterilized, ''e.g.'' in an autoclave.

Several styles of Japanese acupuncture use ''non-inserted needling'', making for an entirely procedure. In non-inserted needling the needle is brought to the skin, but never penetrates it, and various other acupuncture tools are used to tap or stroke along the meridians. Notable examples of these styles are ''Tōyōhari'' and the pediatric acupuncture style ''Shōnishin''.

Common, minor adverse events

A survey by Ernst ''et al.'' of over 400 patients receiving over 3500 acupuncture treatments found that the most common adverse effects from acupuncture were:
*Kidney damage from deep needling in the low back.
*Haemopericardium, or puncture of the protective membrane surrounding the heart, which may occur with needling over a sternal foramen
*Risk of terminating pregnancy with the use of certain acupuncture points that have been shown to stimulate the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone and oxytocin.

The chance of these is very small; the risk can be further reduced through proper training of acupuncturists. Graduates of medical schools and accredited acupuncture schools receive thorough instruction in proper technique so as to avoid these events.

Risks from omitting orthodox medical care

Receiving any form of care without also receiving orthodox Western care can be inherently risky, since undiagnosed disease may go untreated and could worsen. For this reason many acupuncturists and doctors prefer to consider acupuncture a therapy rather than an alternative therapy.

Critics also express concern that unethical or naive practitioners may induce patients to exhaust financial resources by pursuing ineffective treatment. Some public health departments regulate acupuncture.

Safety compared with other treatments

Commenting on the relative safety of acupuncture compared with other treatments, the NIH consensus panel stated that "dverse side effects of acupuncture are extremely low and often lower than conventional treatments." They also stated:
:''"the incidence of adverse effects is substantially lower than that of many or other accepted medical procedures used for the same condition. For example, musculoskeletal conditions, such as fibromyalgia, , and tennis elbow... are conditions for which acupuncture may be beneficial. These painful conditions are often treated with, among other things, or with steroid injections. Both medical interventions have a potential for deleterious side effects but are still widely used and are considered acceptable treatments."''

In a Japanese survey of 55,291 acupuncture treatments given over five years by 73 acupuncturists, 99.8% of them were performed with no significant minor adverse effects and zero major adverse incidents . Two combined studies in the UK of 66,229 acupuncture treatments yielded only 134 minor adverse events. . The total of 121,520 treatments with acupuncture therapy were given with no major adverse incidents .

Legal and political status

Acupuncturists may also practice herbal medicine or tui na, or may be medical acupuncturists, who, as well as being qualified physicians, also practice acupuncture in a simplified form. In most states, medical doctors are not required to have any formal training to perform acupuncture. Over 20 states allow chiropractors to perform acupuncture with less than 200 hours training. The typical amount of hours of medical training by licensed acupuncturists is over 3,000 hours. License is regulated by the or province in many countries, and often requires passage of a board exam.

In the US, acupuncture is practiced by a variety of healthcare providers. Those who specialize in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine are usually referred to as "licensed acupuncturists", or L.Ac.'s. The abbreviation "Dipl. Ac." stands for "Diplomate of Acupuncture" and signifies that the holder is board-certified by the NCCAOM. Professional degrees are usually at the level of a Master's degree.

A poll of American doctors in 2005 showed that 59% believe acupuncture was at least somewhat effective. In 1996, the Food and Drug Administration changed the status of acupuncture needles from to medical devices, meaning that needles are regarded as safe and effective when used appropriately by licensed practitioners.

Canadian acupuncturists have been licensed in British Columbia since 2003. In Ontario, the practice of acupuncture is now regulated by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, 2006, S.o. 2006, chapter 27. The government is in the process of establishing a College whose mandate will be to oversee the implementation of policies and regulations relating to the profession.

In the United Kingdom, acupuncturists are not yet regulated by the government.

In Australia, the legalities of practicing acupuncture also vary by state. Victoria is the only state of Australia with an operational registration board. Currently acupuncturists in New South Wales are bound by the guidelines in the Public Health Regulation 2000, which is enforced at local council level. Other states of Australia have their own skin penetration acts.

Many other countries do not license acupuncturists or require them be trained.


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Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine

The Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine is the national accrediting agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education to accredit Master's-level programs in the acupuncture and Oriental medicine profession. As an independent body, ACAOM accredits first professional Master's degree and professional Master's level certificate and diploma programs in acupuncture and first professional Master's degree and professional Master's level certificate and diploma programs in Oriental medicine with a concentration in both acupuncture and . The Commission fosters excellence in acupuncture and Oriental medicine education by establishing policies and standards that govern the accreditation process for acupuncture and Oriental medicine programs. Currently, ACAOM has over 50 schools and colleges with accredited or candidacy status with the Commission.

Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine is a university in Shanxi, under the authority of the provincial government.

Shang Han Lun

Shang Han Lun (, or Shang Han Za Bin Lun, English translation 'On Cold Damage' or 'On Cold Disease Damage', is a medical treatise by Zhang Zhongjing published in 220 A.D. It is the oldest complete clinical textbook in the world, and one of the four most important canonical medical classics that students must study in education.

The Shang Han Lun has 397 sections with 112 herbal prescriptions, organised into the Six Divisions :

Tai Yang : a milder stage with external symptoms of chills, fevers, stiffness, and headache. Therapy: sweating.

Yang ming : a more severe internal excess yang condition with fever without chills, distended abdomen, and constipation. Therapy: cooling and eliminating.

Shao yang : half outside, half inside half excess and half deficiency with chest discomfort, alternating chills, and fever. Therapy: harmonizing.

Tai yin : chills, distended abdomen with occasional pain. Therapy: warming with supplementing.

Shao yin : weak pulse, anxiety, drowsiness, diarrhea, chills, cold extremities. Therapy: warming with supplementing.

Jue yin : thirst, difficult urination, physical collapse. Therapy: warming with supplementing.

Sang piao xiao

Sang piao xiao or Sangpiaoxiao is a Pinyin transliteration referring to the oothecae, or egg case, of the praying mantis as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. A formula based on this ingredient is known as ''sang piao xiao san'' and is also known as "mantis formula" in .


The three most common varieties of ''sang piao xiao'' are:
*tuan piao xiao (round mantis egg case Their medicinal use might originate from their occasional occurrence on the mulberry plant ''Morus alba''. As its were necessary food for the caterpillars that make silk, much of the plant – including branches, fruits, leaves, and root bark – became revered in ancient China as source of herbal medicine. Says one source, "it would not be surprising that these egg cases, which appeared on some of the plants, were also collected and considered a valuable medicine." Another recommends sangpiaoxiao "To nourish the kidney, promote , arrest , and reduce urination." One source explains that ''sang piao xiao'' is for:

...insufficiency of kidney-yang with deficiency cold of the lower-jiao, spermatorrhea and cloudy urine, impotence and premature ejaculation, it is used with herbs for tonifying the kidney and supporting Yang, consolidating the kidney and preserving essence...

According to another practitioner of traditional medicine:

Although they have not been analyzed to determine their active constituents, a large portion of the egg case is comprised of protein, which would explain the frothy material that turns hard . It also contains a variety of unique constituents produced by the metabolism of the insect, such as aromatic compounds that deter ants, birds, and mice.

Royal jelly and silkworm droppings are other insect secretions used in traditional Chinese medicine.